186 CHAPTER 2 • TSETSE FLIES can remove flies from an area much larger than the zone of immediate attraction. The tsetse fly (genus Glossina) is a large, brown, biting fly that serves as both a host and vector for the trypanosome parasites. During the hottest part of the day (visually early to mid-afternoon), the true resting sites are lowest down on tree trunks, and on the underside of shaded, fallen logs. bushbuck). (See footnote) What effect does trypanosomosis have on domestic animals? It is essentially the biophysical environment that surrounds, influences and is utilized by a species population. Flies that enter the trap may die because of exposure to an insecticide impregnated in the trap material or because they are exposed to the sun. Tsetse flies, with one exception, are all found in Africa. Tsetse flies feed on the blood of a wide range of domestic and wild animals as well as humans and it is whilst feeding that an infected fly transfers the trypanosomes to its host. Thus a trap PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE. Tsetse flies are found in a number of habitats in sub-Saharan Africa, ranging from the rain forest to savannahs. 2) This metacylic stage quickly gives way to a blood-borne stage that begins a series of binary fission divisions at the site of inoculation. However, they tend to make many short flights every day and these are not all in the same direction. LIFE CYCLE . Migrating flies that pass nearby are also attracted. Sleeping sickness … 1) Infection of a human host occurs when a tsetse fly bites a human and transmits from its salivary glands the metacylic stage (the infective state) of the trypanosome. So they could travel up to 10 km every day! For centuries, tsetse have been one of the greatest factors affecting the course of economic and social development in Africa. Trypanosomosis in animals severely affects their productivity in several ways and if left untreated is often fatal. The flies resemble normal house flies, but can be identified by two distinguishing characteristics. All tsetse fly species have a long probe, or proboscis, extending horizontally from the base of their head. While taking blood from a mammalian host, an infected tsetse fly injects metacyclic trypomastigotes into skin tissue. At copier times of the day, and in cooler seasons, the flies rest higher up tree trunks, and on the underside of branches. Tsetse flies feed on the blood of vertebrate animals (including humans) and in doing so, transmit the sleeping sickness parasite from infected animals to uninfected ones. their range of vision. All of the 31 known species and subspecies are capable of transmitting the trypanosome parasites that cause human sleeping sickness and disease in domestic animals that is known as nagana. Tsetse can fly at about 20 km/h (Gibson et al., 1991) and they are active for something like 30 minutes each day (Bursell & Taylor, 1980). 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